The 17.8 m monolith of Jain prophet Bhagavan Gomateshwara Bahubali, which was carved out around 983 C.E and is located in Shravanabelagola, India, is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival. The colossal monolithic statue of Gomateshwara (Shravanabelagola is a synonymous word), also called as Bahubali the Jain saint, created around 983 C.E by Chamundaraya, a minister of the Ganga King, Rachamalla (Raachmalla SathyaVaak IV 975-986 C.E) is located atop the Chandragiri hill (618 steps climb leads to the monolith on the hill), near the town of Shravanabelagola in Karnataka state. This statue is said to have been carved out of a single block of fine-grained white granite and is considered of great religious significance because Jains believe Bahubali was the first to attain moksha (freedom from cycle of birth and death). The image stands on a lotus. It has no support up to the thighs and is 60 feet (18 m) tall with the face measuring 6.5 feet (2.0 m). The statue is completely in the nude, in the Jain custom and is visible from a distance of 30 km.With the serene expression on the face of the image, its curled hair with graceful locks, its proportional anatomy, the monolith size, and the combination of its artistry and craftsmanship have led it to be called the mightiest achievement in sculptural art in medieval Karnataka. It is the largest monolithic statue in the world.
The neighbouring areas of Shravanabelagola, apart from the Gomateshwara statue, have Jaina bastis and several images of the Jaina Thirthankaras. A beautiful view of the surrounding areas could be seen from the top of the Chandragiri hill. Every 12 years, thousands of devotees congregate here to perform the Mahamastakabhisheka, a spectacular ceremony in which the thousand-year-old statue is anointed with milk, curds, ghee, saffron and gold coins. The anointing last took place in February 2006, and the next ceremony will occur in 2018.
The Harmandir Sahib (Punjabi) or Darbar Sahib, informally referred to as the Golden Temple or Temple of God, is culturally the most significant shrine of the Sikhs and one of the oldest Sikh Gurudwara. It is located in the city of Amritsar, which was established by Guru Ram Das, the fourth guru of the Sikhs and the city that it was built in, is also due to the shrine known as Amritsar.
The fourth Guru of Sikhism, Guru Ram Das, excavated a tank in 1577 C.E which subsequently became known as Amritsar or Amrit Sarovar (meaning: Pool of the Nectar of Immortality), giving its name to the city that grew around it. In due course, a splendid Sikh edifice, Harmandir Sahib (meaning: The abode of God) , rose in the middle of this tank and became the supreme centre of Sikhism. Its sanctum houses the Adi Granth, compiled by Guru Arjun Dev, comprising compositions of Sikh Gurus and other saints considered to have Sikh values and philosophies e.g. Baba Farid, Kabir, etc. . Devotees, for whom the temple is a symbol of freedom and spiritual independence, come here from all over the world to enjoy its environs and offer their prayers. The Golden Temple sits on a rectangular platform, surrounded by a pool of water called the Amrit Sarovar. The temple building has four entrances instead of the usual single entry. This is symbolic of the openness of Sikhism and indicates that followers of all faiths are allowed inside. The walls within are decorated with carved wooden panels and elaborate inlay work in silver and gold. The Adi Granth, rests on a throne beneath a jewel-encrusted canopy. Priests conduct continuous recitation of verses from the holy book.
Taj Mahal, built in the memory of the queen Mumtaz Mahal
Taj Mahal (also “the Taj”), the pinnacle of Mughal architecture, * Archeological Survey of India description was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his queen Mumtaz Mahal. It is considered the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Persian, Turkish, Indian, and Islamic architectural styles. In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO World Heritage Site and was cited as “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage.” It is an integrated symmetric complex of structures that was completed around 1648. Ustad Ahmad Lahauri is generally considered to be the principal designer of the Taj Mahal.
The focus of the Taj Mahal is the white marble tomb, which stands on a square plinth consisting of a symmetrical building with an iwan, an arch-shaped doorway, topped by a large dome. Like most Mughal tombs, basic elements are Persian in origin. The base structure is a large, multi-chambered structure. The base is essentially a cube with chamfered edges and is roughly 55 meters on each side (see floor plan, right). On the long sides, a massive pishtaq, or vaulted archway, frames the iwan with a similar arch-shaped balcony. On either side of the main arch, additional pishtaqs are stacked above and below. This motif of stacked pishtaqs is replicated on chamfered corner areas as well. The design is completely symmetrical on all sides of the building. Four minarets, one at each corner of the plinth, facing the chamfered corners, frame the tomb. The main chamber houses the false sarcophagi of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan; their actual graves are at a lower level. The exterior decorations of the Taj Mahal are among the finest to be found in Mughal architecture. The calligraphy found are of florid thuluth script, created by Persian calligrapher Amanat Khan.
Masons, stonecutters, inlayers, carvers, painters, calligraphers, dome-builders and other artisans were requisitioned from the whole of the empire and also from Central Asia and Iran to build the monument. While bricks for internal constructions were locally prepared, white marble for external use in veneering work was obtained from Makrana in Rajasthan. Semi-precious stones for inlay ornamentation were brought from distant regions of India, Ceylon (SriLanka) and Afghanistan. Red sandstone of different tints was requisitioned from the neighbouring quarries of Sikri, Dholpur. It took 17 years for the Taj to be built.
Vijayanagar Raja Gopura at Hampi, Karnataka
The 14th century ruins nestle within them with almost every highlight of classical Indian architecture. Palaces, temples, marketplaces, watch towers, stables, baths and monoliths lie scattered amidst huge boulders, which complement the rugged look and historic feel of the place.
Ruins of Hampi – UNESCO World Heritage Site, presents the Vijayanagara architecture, a vibrant combination of the Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya Chola styles, idioms that prospered in previous centuries. It Hampi was the last capital of the Vijayanagar Empire, which was admired by the travellers between the 14th and 16th centuries. But it was pillaged and abandoned by the Muslim confederacy which conquered the Decann in 1565 C.E. Palaces, temples, marketplaces, watch towers, stables, baths and monoliths lie scattered amidst huge boulders, which complement the rugged look and historic feel of the place.
Its legacy of sculpture, architecture and painting influenced the development of the arts long after the empire came to an end. Its stylistic hallmark is the ornate pillared Kalyanamantapa (marriage hall), Vasanthamantapa (open pillared halls) and the Rajagopura (tower). While the empire’s monuments are spread over the whole of Southern India, nothing surpasses the vast open air theatre of monuments at its capital at Vijayanagara.
Konark sun temple at Night, OrissaWheel of Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun temple (also known as the Black Pagoda), was built in black granite by King Narasimhadeva I (1236 C.E-1264 C.E) of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is a UNESCO-World Heritage Site. Built in the 13th century, the temple is designed in the shape of a colossal chariot with 24 wheels (3.3 m dia diameter each) drawn by seven horses and, carrying the Sun god, Surya, across the heavens.It is a stunning monument of religious (Brahmanical) architecture. The Sun temple belongs to the Kalinga School of Indian Temples with characteristic curvilinear towers mounted by cupolas and is aligned in the east-west direction as it is dedicated to Sun, which sun lits the entrance. The temple plan depicts three segments, viz., Natmandir (the outer complex), Jagmohan (the central complex) and Garbhagriha (the main complex housing the Deity). The main sanctum which (69.8 m. high) was constructed along with the audience hall (39.5 m. high) having elaborate external projections. The main sanctum which enshrined the presiding deity has fallen off. The Audience Hall survives in its entirely, but only small portions of the Dancing Hall (nata Mandir) and the Dining Hall (Bhoga-Mandap) have survived the vagaries of time. The Temple compound measures The Temple compound measures 857 ft (261 m) by 540 ft (160 m).
The entrance to the temple is guarded by two lions, each shown crushing a war elephant. Each elephant in turn is shown on top of a human body. At the entrance, there is also a Nata Mandir or dance hall where the temple dancers used to perform dances in homage to the Sun god. All around the temple, there are various floral and geometric patterns. There are also human, divine and semi-divine figures in sensuous poses. The poses contains couples in various amorous postures, and are derived from the Kama Sutr@.
The stupa of Sariputta at Nalanda.
The Nalanda, located in the Indian State of Bihar, was a Buddhist center of learning from 427 C.E to 1197 C.E partly under the Pala Empire. It has been called “one of the first great universities in recorded history.” According to historical studies the University of Nalanda was established 450 C.E under the patronage of the Gupta emperors, notably Kumaragupta. Nalanda, considered as the world’s first residential university, had dormitories for students and had accommodated over 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. The university was considered an architectural masterpiece, and was marked by a lofty wall and one gate. Nalanda had eight separate compounds and ten temples, along with many other meditation halls and classrooms. On the grounds were lakes and parks. The library was located in a nine storied building where meticulous copies of texts were produced. The subjects taught at Nalanda University covered every field of learning, and it attracted pupils and scholars from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia and Turkey. The Tang Dynasty Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang left detailed accounts of the university in the 7th century.
Diwali is just a few days away! The festive spirit is in the air! There’s a lot of colour, fun and frolic!
May the festival of light, light up your life with all that you have wished for!
We wish each one of you a very happy, prosperous and safe Diwali!
We thought of taking this opportunity to also share a few tips with you, as putting on a precautionary mask is always better!
Store your fireworks safely:
In a closed box, somewhere cool and dry, out of reach of children and animals and away from all sources of heat, until the time they're needed. Locked away is best. Don't keep the box under the stairs or in a passageway.
Pets hate bangs and flashes:
Pets get very frightened on fireworks night, so keep all your pets indoor and close all the curtains to make things calmer. Remember it's not just your own fireworks that cause distress, so you may have to have your pets indoors on several nights when other displays are taking place.
Think ahead and be prepared:
Before you start, make sure you'll be giving yourself enough room in a safe place to get to and from your box of fireworks while the display is going on. Have a full bucket of water handy for any emergency, and for putting used sparklers into. If you have the chance to get together with some other families, try to go to the home with the biggest open space and safest surroundings.
Never try to re-ignite the fireworks that don't light in the first instance. Never give ANY firework item to small children. Never throw fireworks at another person. Never carry fireworks in your pocket. Never shoot fireworks from metal or glass containers. Never experiment, modify, or attempt to make your own fireworks.
Watch what you wear:
Loose clothing can very easily catch fire, and should not be worn near any fire or fireworks. Long dangly scarves can be risky too. If anyone's clothing does catch fire, follow the rule: Stop – Don't run. Drop to the ground. Roll to put out the flames.
One at a time please:
You (or another adult that you choose) must be the only person letting off fireworks. Don't allow anyone else – especially children – to do so while your display is going on. Let the fireworks off one at a time (not lots at once) and don't rush. Light the tip of each firework at arm's length, using fireworks lighter or fuse wick. Stand well back immediately. If one doesn't go off, don't go back to it – it could still be live, and could go off unexpectedly on your face. Right at the end of your fireworks night, douse the 'duds' with lots of water, keep it soaking in a bucket of water. Never throw left over fireworks onto a bonfire.
Different fireworks mean different hazards:
Read the instructions on each one carefully (by flashlight, never an open flame) and follow them properly. Rockets, for instance, should be launched from a rocket launcher, not from a bottle. Sparklers need careful handling – light them one at a time at arm's length; don't give one to any child under 5 years of age; make sure that anyone holding a sparkler wears gloves; and put each spent one into a bucket of water as soon as it's gone out.
Putting fireworks in your pocket is stupid and dangerous. Throwing fireworks at people is stupid and dangerous and illegal; it's a criminal offense to do so.
Fireworks and booze don't mix:
Drinking alcohol presents an added danger when there are fireworks and bonfires around. So don't drink during your fireworks display.
Watch that person:
Keep children well away from fireworks, and never let a child handle or light one. Even sparklers can be dangerous if unsupervised! Do not give sparklers to a child under five. Make sure that children are aware of the dangers.
Don't light flying fireworks if there is a heavy wind:
Never take unnecessary risks while lighting fireworks, just to show off. Pool your pocket money and have a professional perform pyrotechnics for the benefit of many
Do s & Don't s While Bursting Crackers
Thus, awareness campaigns are launched so that fatalities and injuries caused by fireworks could be brought down. All mishaps due to fireworks occur as a result of carelessness, negligence and ignorance. Simple precautions can help avoid these mishaps.
India sees the maximum number of burn accidents during Diwali. Here is a ready reckoner just in case there is an accident near you. Your quick action can save lives and alleviate suffering for people around you. Remember to keep a bucket of water close by when lighting crackers.
Burns destroy skin, which controls the amount of heat our bodies retain or release, holds in fluids, and protects us from infection. While minor burns on fingers and hands are usually not dangerous, burns injuring even relatively small areas of skin can develop serious complications. If you think a burn of any type is significant, do not hesitate to call an ambulance immediately.
Here are the first aid steps for treating a burn:
· STAY SAFE! Do not let the rescuer get burned trying to save the victim.
· Cool the burned area with cool running water for several minutes. DO NOT overcool the casualty; this may dangerously lower the body temperature.
· DO NOT remove anything sticking to the burn; this may cause further damage and cause infection.
· DO NOT touch or interfere with the injured area. DO NOT burst blisters.
· DO NOT apply lotions, ointment, or fat to the injury.
· Gently remove any rings, watches, belts, shoes, or smouldering clothing from the injured area, before it starts to swell. Carefully remove burned clothing unless it is sticking to the burn.
· Cover the injury with a sterile burns sheet or other suitable non-fluffy material, to protect from infection. A clean plastic bag or kitchen film may be used. Burns to the face should be cooled with water, not covered.
· Ensure that the emergency service is on its way. While waiting, treat the casualty for shock. Monitor and record breathing and pulse, and resuscitate, if necessary.
Please do follow the safety tips and enjoy the festive season!
Wishing you all an Enlightening, Happy, Prosperous, Memorable and Safe Diwali!
Common wealth Games Stadiums, Delhi, India – 2010
New Delhi, Sep 27 (IANS) The Commonwealth Games Village might have been mired in controversy for months but most of the 1,000-odd athletes and officials who checked in Monday afternoon looked pleased at what they saw.
Leading the cheering brigade was South African High Commissioner Harris Mbulelo Sithembile Majeke, who had created a stir Sunday by saying a snake had been found in an apartment allotted to his country’s athletes. He sang a completely different tune Monday.
‘With only five days to go before the Commonwealth Games begin, we remain optimistic that India will deliver a memorable Games,’ Majeke told reporters here.
On their part, the athletes said they were delighted to see a marked improvement in the conditions at the Village as the cleaning up of the towers continued at a furious pace.
Around 1,100 foreign athletes, officials and media personnel landed in the Indian capital Sunday and 550 more are expected by nightfall Monday.
They are among the 7,000 participants from 71 nations and territories at the Oct 3-14 Commonwealth Games, India’s largest sporting event after the 1982 Asiad.
As the athletes got a measure of the Village, helicopters hovered overhead as security was tightened on the roads and a fresh alert was issued to the states against terror strikes.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have also been placed on standby to guard against airborne intrusions, a security official told IANS.
Delhi Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit toured the Village Monday in a golf cart to inspect the progress of cleaning up operation. She said all steps are being taken to maintain the Village spic and span.
The first batch from Scotland, who had delayed their arrival, moved into the Village and they looked pleased with the facilities.
‘We are really happy with all the facilities. We are having a good time here. We went to the archery venue and we found lush green field was really nice. The facility is up there with some of the best fields I have seen at the World championships,’ Scottish archer Claudine Jenning told IANS.
The food, she added, was excellent.
Said Mike Summer from the Falkland Islands: ‘I came on Sep 22. At that time the condition was very poor. All the negative media reports were justified at that time. But from there on things have improved a lot. I have checked the accommodation several times and am now satisfied with the progress.
‘There has been progress on a daily basis… However, I don’t know whether the electricity or the plumbing will hold up. I hope it does.’
On the flip side, an unhappy Kenyan camp said it expected more.
‘We came yesterday (Sunday). Our experience has been average,’ a Kenyan delegate complained to IANS.
‘The rooms could have been cleaner…,’ added Ruth Mueni Nzioka, a Kenyan team official.
With preparations beginning in earnest for the Games kicking off Sunday evening, authorities enforced dedicated traffic lanes after forcing over 1,500 Blueline public transport buses off the roads.
‘I am stuck in traffic for the last one hour. I am late for office and my children are late for school too,’ said Sujata Jain, who was caught in traffic on the Ring Road.
Over 1,500 Blueline buses plying on 132 routes were pushed off roads from Sunday till Oct 16 to ease traffic congestion on Delhi roads. These routes pass through central Delhi and near the Games venues.
Consequently, traffic has risen sharply on Delhi Metro.
Though schools in the city will be closed from Oct 1 till the Games end Oct 14, students and commuters will find it tough dealing with traffic jams and fewer public transport buses until then.
The exclusive CWG lanes were operational from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. Sunday onwards on certain stretches of Delhi roads.
As the city prepared for the much anticipated event, Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee expressed confidence that it would be conducted ‘properly and smoothly’.
‘I am quite confident that the Games will be conducted smoothly, and (the) country will be happy to see (it) being conducted properly and smoothly. And there is no problem in conducting the Games,’ Mukherjee told a Kerala based channel.
In all this, a new question arose: Who will inaugurate the 19th edition of the Games?
Sources in the Organising Committee (OC) said Monday Indian President Pratibha Patil and Britain’s Prince Charles may share the honours in the absence of the Commonwealth head, Queen Elizabeth.
Negotiations are still on between the OC and the Indian and British governments regarding the details, the sources added.
‘OC chief Suresh Kalmadi and Cabinet Secretary K.M. Chandrasekhar will hold discussions soon regarding the inauguration programme. Efforts are on for a solution acceptable to all parties,’ an OC official told IANS on condition of anonymity.
As per protocol, Queen Elizabeth should inaugurate the Games, organised among the countries which comprise the erstwhile British empire.
The Supreme Court, meanwhile, dismissed a petition seeking the removal of Kalmadi as chairman of the Organising Committee.
The petitioner had demanded a Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) probe into the alleged irregularities in the multi-million rupee deals that were struck for the Games preparations.
Visit the official website of 2010 Commonwealth Games:- https://www.cwgdelhi2010.org/
Current News around Common Wealth Games
CWG venues finally ready to resume games:
COMMONWEALTH GAMES: Kirkham knows England have to like it hot – More Than The Games
James Tindall hopes the sparks will fly for England’s hockey team … – Daily Mail
Delhi CWG: England turn on the heat to melt mental barrier – Hindustan Times
Delhi shuts down ahead of CWG opening ceremony – Economic Times
WE ARE NOT A HINDU, NOT A MUSLIM, NOT A CHRISTIAN………
WE ARE ALL
STATES AND CAPITAL
Jammu and Kashmir
Summer Capital: Jammu
Winter Capital: Srinagar
Andaman & Nicobar
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Daman and Diu
Presidents of India
(Jan. 26, 1950 to May 13, 1962)
(May 13, 1962 to May 13, 1967)
(May 13, 1967 to May 3, 1969)
(May 3, 1969 to July 20, 1969)(acting)
Justice Mohammed Hidayatullah
(July 20, 1969 to August 24, 1969)(acting)
(August 24, 1969 to August 24, 1974)
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
(August 24, 1974 to Feb. 11, 1977)
(Feb. 12, 1977 to July 25, 1977)(acting)
Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy
(July 25, 1977 to July 25, 1982)
Giani Zail Singh
(July 25, 1982 to July 25, 1987)
(July 25, 1987 to July 25, 1992)
Dr.Shanker Dayal Sharma
(July 25, 1992 to July 25, 1997)
K. R. Narayanan
(July 25, 1997 – July 25, 2002)
A P J Abdul Kalam
July 25, 2002 – July 25, 2007
July 25, 2007 – till datePrime Ministers of India
Aug. 15, 1947 – May 27, 1964
Gulzari Lal Nanda
May 27, 1964 – June 9, 1964 (Interim)
January 11 – 24, 1966(Interim)
Lal Bahadur Shastri
June 9, 1964 – January 11, 1966
Jan. 24, 1966 to March 24, 1977
Jan. 14, 1980 to Oct. 31,1984
March 24, 1977 to July 28, 1979
July 28, 1979 – Jan. 14, 1980
Oct. 31,1984 to Dec. 1,1989
V. P. Singh
Dec. 2,1989 – Nov. 10, 1990
Nov. 10,1990 – June 21, 1991
P. V. Narasimha Rao
June 21, 1991 to May 10, 1996
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
May 16 to June 1, 1996
H. D. Deve Gowda
June 1, 1996 to April 21, 1997
I. K. Gujral
April 21, 1997 – Nov. 28. 1997.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
March 19, 1998 – May 22, 2004
Dr. Manmohan Singh
May 22, 2004 – till date
National Animal of India
Tiger is scientifically known as Panthera tigris. It is a member of the Felidae family and the largest of the four ‘big cats’ of the Panthera genus. On an average, a tiger is about 13 feet in length and 150 kilograms in weight. The pattern of dark vertical stripes that overlay near-white to reddish-orange fur is the distinct recognition of a tiger. By nature, the tiger is a keen predator and carnivore. The Panthera tigris is a native of the eastern and southern Asia. Known as Lord of Jungles due to its grace, agility, power and endurance, Tiger is also the national animal of India.
Choice of Tiger as National Animal
Tiger was chosen as the National animal of India due to its grace, strength, agility and enormous power. As the tiger is also considered as the king of Jungle, it was an obvious choice for the National Animal category. Since time immemorial, the tiger has been considered as a Royal Animal. Often, The Tiger as the National Animal of India symbolizes the power, strength, elegance, alertness, intelligence and endurance of the nation.
Declining Population of Tiger
There is a steep fall in the population of tigers in the world. Due to illegal smuggling of Tiger Skin and other body parts, there are very few tigers left in the world today. According to the World Census of Tigers, there are only 5000 -7000 tigers in the world today. Out of which, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Myanmar claim to have a population of 3000 to 4500 and India alone claims to have a population of 2500 to 3750. In India, out of the eight known races of the Panthera Tigris species, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region.
Project Tiger in India
Due to the extreme threat of extinction of the tiger species from the country, the Indian Government launched Project Tiger in 1973. Project tiger was focused to preserve the remaining tiger population in the country and increase the breeding of the species so that new population could be added to the existing one. Under this Project, 23 tiger reserves were established throughout the country, covering an area of 33,406 sq. km for providing safe and comfortable shelter to the tigers in the natural environment. By 1993, there was much improvement in the tiger population in the country. However despite the increase in population, the population of tigers in the country is still not satisfactory compared to the effort and money put in the project. This is due to the illegal poaching of the tigers and negligence of authorities towards the alarming situation of the tiger population in the country.
National Anthem of India
National anthem can be described as a patriotic musical composition of a country, which reminds and praises the history, traditions and struggles of its people. At the same time, it has to be recognized as the official national song, either by the nation’s government or by convention through use by the people. The national anthem of India is ‘Jana-gana-mana’, composed originally in Bengali, by Rabindranath Tagore. It was adopted as the national anthem of India, in its Hindi version, by the Constituent Assembly, on 24th January 1950.
‘Jana-gana-mana’ was first sung on 27th December 1911, long before Indian gained independence, at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. As for the playing time of the full version of the national anthem, it will take up approximately 52 seconds. A short version, consisting of first and last lines of the stanza (playing time approximately 20 seconds), is also played on certain occasions.
National Anthem In Hindi
Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Tava shubha name jage,
Tava shubha asisa mage,
Gahe tava jaya gatha,
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!
Translation In English
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India’s destiny.
The name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravid and Orissa and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
Mingles in the music of the Yamuna and Ganga
And is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The salvation of all people is in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India’s destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee.
The Story Behind Translation
Jana Gana Mana was translated, from Sanskrit to English, by Rabindranath Tagore and the music on this English Translation was set in Madanapalle, a small town in Andhra Pradesh. As to the story behind this translation, in 1918 Tagore was invited, by controversial Irish poet James H. Cousins, to spend a few days at the Besant Theosophical College (BTC). James was serving as the principal of the college, at that time.
On February 28, while attending a gathering of students at BTC, Rabindranath sang the Jana Gana Mana in Bengali. Suddenly, he thought of translating the song in English. A few days later, in Madanapalle, Tagore wrote down the English translation of the song. Cousins’ wife, Margaret, who was an expert in Western music, set down the music for this English version. The framed original English translation is still displayed in the library of Besant Theosophical College in Madanapalle.
National Bird of India
The Peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), is the national bird of India. Emblematic of qualities such as beauty, grace, pride and mysticism, it is a multihued, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. Much in contrast to the natural phenomenon, the male specie of the bird is much more strikingly stunning than its female counterpart. The male bird, peacock, flaunts a gleaming blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green train of around 200 elongated feathers. It is capable of extending its tail erect like fan as ostentatious display.
The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a beautiful sight. On the other hand, the female bird, peahen, slightly smaller than its male counterpart. Brownish in color, the female bird also lacks the train visible in the male specie. Peacock is predominantly found in the Indian sub-continent, ranging from the south to east of the Indus river. Jammu and Kashmir, east Assam, south Mizoram and the whole of the Indian peninsula also is home to this impeccable bird. The bird lives in jungle lands near water and is thus, chiefly found in the wilds in India (sometimes, domesticated in villages as well).
Peacock is illustrated in pictures accompanying Indian Gods and Goddesses. The sacred bird of the India, the bird was once bred for food, but now hunting of peacocks is banned in India. It is protected not only by a religious sentiment, but also by parliamentary statute. Peacocks have been given full protection under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Apart from India, it is also involved to the cultures prevalent in Far East, Ancient Persia, Greek and Christian. While the figure of peacock features in various Islamic religious buildings, the bird is symbolic to ‘Resurrection of Christ’ in Christianity.
Coming back to Hinduism, peacock is portrayed as the image of the God of thunder, rains and war, Indra. People believe that, when a peacock extends its tail erect like fan for an enchanting and mesmerizing demonstration, it indicates that rainfall is on the cards. Though this might sound strange, but the fact is somewhat true. On seeing the dark clouds, peacock outspreads its tail and starts dancing in rhythmic fashion. Its dance movement has been incorporated in most of the Indian folklore, including Bharatha Natyam. In southern part of India, peacock is considered as a ‘vahana’ or vehilce of lord Muruga.
Features Of Peacock
The male specie, peacock, is characterized with a 2.12 m (7.3 ft) length, in full breeding plumage, and weighs about 5 kg (11 lbs). The female bird – peahen, on the other hand, is about 86 cm (34 in) long and weighs about 3.4 kg (7.4 lbs). Adoring the glistening blue-green plumage, the Indian peacock has an extension of feathers on its back. Each feather is exemplified with an eye at its end. The Indian peahen is a mixture of dull green, grey and iridescent blue, with the greenish-grey color outweighing. The bird is mostly found in the dry semi-desert grasslands, scrub and deciduous forests and feeds on mainly seeds, but some also eat insects, fruits and reptiles.
National Calendar of India
The Saka calendar used as the official civil calendar in the country is the National Calendar of India. It is used in India besides the Gregorian calendar by the Gazette of India, news broadcasts by All India Radio, calendars and communication document issued by control of Government of India. The Saka calendar, often referred as the Hindu calendar is originally named as Saka Samvat. It is also used for the calculation days of religious significance in the Hindu Religion in the country. You will always find a Saka calendar alongside a Gregorian Calender in an Indian Home.
Formation of Saka Calendar
In the Indian civil calendar, the initial period is the Saka Era. The Calendar is said to have begun with King Salivahana’s accession to the throne. It is used as a reference for most astronomical works in Sanskrit literature written after 500 AD. The calculation of ‘thitis’ i.e. dates in this Calendar are done in accordance with the actual positions of Sun and Moon in the universe. In the Saka calendar, the year 2009 AD is 1932.
Adoption of Saka Calendar as National Calendar
The current national calendar of India i.e. the Saka Calendar was adopted as the National Calendar in 1957 by the Calendar Reform Committee which also made efforts to coincide the astronomical data and harmonize the usage of this calendar after rectification of some local errors. It came into usage from March 22, 1957 according to the Gregorian calendar which was actually Saka Era, Chaitra 1, 1879 according to the Saka Samvat. It was adopted as the National calendar in order to synchronize the usage of 30 different kinds of Calendar used in India at that time.
An Overview of the Saka Calendar
Saka Calendar is said to have begun from the vernal equinox of A.D. 79. The usage of the Calendar began from aka Era 1879, Chaitra 1, which corresponds to A.D. 1957 March 22. The Saka Calendar is similar to the Gregorian calendar on the terms that even the Saka calendar has a normal year of 365 days and a leap year has 366 days. In a leap year, an intercalary day is added to the end of Chaitra month of the year. There are 12 months in Saka Calendar which are named as Vaisakha ,Jyestha ,Asadha ,Sravana, Bhadrapada, Asvina , Kartika Margasirsa , Pausa , Magh, Phalgura ,Chaitra.
National Flag of India
The National Flag of India, also called the ‘Tiranga’, was adopted during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly of the country. The meeting was held on the 22nd July 1947, twenty-four days prior to India’s independence from the British (which took place on 15th August 1947). Based on the flag of the Indian National Congress, which was designed by Pingali Venkayya, the flag is also the war flag Indian Army, hoisted daily on military installations. The heraldic description of Indian National Flag is Party per fess Saffron and Vert on a fess Argent a “Chakra” Azure.
National Flag of India has been designed in such a way that it forms a horizontal tricolor, with the colors – saffron, white and green, in equal proportions. The deep saffron (kesari) color is at the top; white is in the middle, while dark green forms the bottom. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is 2:3. In the centre of the white band of the flag is a navy blue wheel, comprising of 24 spokes, which represents the Ashoka Chakra, seen on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. The diameter of the chakra approximates to three-fourth of the width of the white band of the flag.
The preamble of the flag code of India describes the significance of the colors and the chakra in the ‘Tiranga’. It was amply described by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in the Constituent Assembly that unanimously adopted the National Flag. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan explained:
“Bhagwa or the saffron colour denotes renunciation of disinterestedness. Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to their work. The white in the centre is light, the path of truth to guide our conduct. The green shows our relation to soil, our relation to the plant life here on which all other life depends. The Ashoka Wheel in the center of the white is the wheel of the law of dharma. Truth or satya, dharma or virtue ought to be the controlling principles of those who work under this flag. Again, the wheel denotes motion. There is death in stagnation. There is life in movement. India should no more resist change, it must move and go forward. The wheel represents the dynamism of a peaceful change..”
After 52 years, the citizens of India are free to fly the Indian National Flag over their homes, offices and factories on any day. On 26th January 2002, the flag code was changed, giving Indians the freedom to proudly display the national flag any where and any time. However, there are still some rules and regulations upon how to fly the flag, based on the 26th January 2002 legislation, which should be followed by the citizens. These rules and regulation includes certain dos and don’ts, which have been explained below.
- The National Flag may be hoisted in educational institutions (schools, colleges, sports camps, scout camps, etc.) to inspire respect for the Flag. An oath of allegiance has been included in the flag hoisting in schools.
- A member of public, a private organization or an educational institution may hoist/display the National Flag on all days and occasions, ceremonial or otherwise, consistent with the dignity and honor of the National Flag.
- Section 2 of the new code accepts the right of all private citizens to fly the flag on their premises.
- The flag cannot be used for communal gains, drapery, or clothes. As far as possible, it should be flown from sunrise to sunset, irrespective of the weather.
- The flag cannot be intentionally allowed to touch the ground or the floor or trail in water. It cannot be draped over the hood, top, and sides or back of vehicles, trains, boats or aircraft.
- No other flag or bunting can be placed higher than the flag. Also, no object, including flowers or garlands or emblems, can be placed on or above the flag. The tricolor cannot be used as a festoon, rosette or bunting.
National Flower of India
Lotus, botanically known as the Nelumbo Nucifera is the national flower of India. The Lotus plant is basically an aquatic plant with wide floating leaves and bright aromatic flowers which grow only in shallow waters. The Lotus plant has floating leaves and flowers. It has long aerated stems.. The lotus flowers are extremely beautiful with an overlapping proportional motif of petals. It is considered to be a sacred flower and occupies unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India. This flower has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.
Choice of Lotus As National Flower
The Lotus Flower symbolizes divinity, fertility, wealth, knowledge and enlightenment. It is also regarded as a symbol of triumph as it can survive to regerminate for thousands of years. Lotus represents long life, honor, and good fortune. Untouched by the impurity despite growing in mud, the flower is also meant to symbolize the purity of heart and mind. It holds additional significance for Hindus, as it is regarded as the symbol of many Gods and Goddesses and is often used in religious practices. It was because of these noble meanings and cultural significance that made the founding
fathers of modern India enshrine the lotus in the Constitution as the National Flower.
Cultural Significance of Lotus
From ancient times the lotus has been considered to be a sacred symbol in Asian traditions representing sexual purity. It is also regarded as the symbol of purity and divinity by several religions. Hindus relate it to their Almighty, Vishnu, Brahma, Lakshmi and Sarasvati who are often depicted sitting upon this pious flower. As Lotus also stands as the symbol of divine beauty, it is used as a symbol to describe the beauty of Lord Vishnu by referring him as the ‘Lotus-Eyed One’. In the Hindu Mythology, the unfolding petals of Lotus signify the expansion of the soul. As the Lotus carries piousness despite growing from the mud, it is said to represent a caring spiritual promise. The Buddhists consider the Lotus Flower to be sacred and auspicious as the flower stands for faithfulness in their religion. The lotus plant has also been cited as a sacred flower extensively in the ancient Puranic and Vedic literature.
- Apart from India, Lotus is also the national flower of Vietnam.
- In Egypt the Lotus Flowers are considered to auspicious because they are regarded as the symbol of Sun God.
- Lotus seeds are medicinal in nature and are used for the treatment of kidney, spleen, and heart ailments. They are also considered beneficial in the treatment of Leucorrhea, palpitation and insomnia.
- Lotus seeds are also used as antidotes in mushroom poisoning.
- The seeds, leaves and tubers of the Lotus Flower are edible.
National Fruit of India
Mango, cultivated in India since times immemorial, is regarded as the National Fruit of the country. Described as the “Food of the Gods”, in the sacred Vedas, the fruit is grown almost in all parts of India, except the hilly areas, but is mainly available in the summer season only.. There are more than 100 varieties of mangos in India, in a range of colors, sizes, and shapes. The common names used in context of the fruit are, Mangot, Manga, and Mangou. The eact origin of the term ‘mango’ is not known. It is believed to have come from the Portuguese term ‘manga’, which is probably from Malayalam ‘manga’.
Mango finds a mentioned in the Indian history as well. In fact, the famous poet Kalidasa is known to have sung its praises. Apart from that, ancient Greek King Alexander the Great and Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang have been said to have savored its taste. Historical records also mention the instance of Mughal Kinf Akbar planting 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, known as Lakhibagh. Mangos, liked for their sweet juice and bright colors all around the world, are known to be rich in vitamin A, C, and D.
Mangoes are available in different sizes, ranging from 10 to 25 cm in length and 7 to 12 cm in width. In terms of weight, a single mango can be as heavy as 2.5 kg. The fruit come in a wide variety of colors, such as green, yellow, red, and even various combinations of all these colors. Mango has a flat, oblong seed in the center, which is covered by the sweet pulp. Covering the pulp is a thin layer of skin, which is peeled off before eating the fruit. When ripe, the unpeeled fruit gives off a distinct, resinous sweet smell.
A large number of mango varieties can be found in India. the most popular ones include ‘Alphonso’ (also called ‘Hapoos’), ‘Amrapali’, ‘Bangalora’, ‘Banganapalli’ (also known as ‘Benishaan’), ‘Bombay’, ‘Bombay Green’, ‘Chausa’, ‘Chinna Rasalu’, ‘Dashaheri’ (‘Daseri’), ‘Fazli’, ‘Fernandian’, ‘Gulabkhas’, ‘Himayath’ (a.k.a. ‘Imam Pasand’), ‘Himsagar’, ‘Jehangir’, ‘Kesar’, ‘Kishen Bhog’, ‘Lalbaug’, ‘Langda’ (‘Langra’), ‘Mallika’, ‘Mankurad’, ‘Mulgoa’, ‘Neelam’, ‘Pairi’, ‘Pedda Rasalu’, ‘Rajapuri’, ‘Safeda’, ‘Suvarnarekha’, ‘Totapuri’, ‘Vanraj’ and ‘Zardalu’.
Frost-free climate is best for the growth of Mangos. If temperatures drop below 40? F, even for a short period, the flowers and small fruits already grown on the tree can get killed. In other words, warm and dry weather is required for the cultivation of the fruit. This is it available in the summer season only. Mango can grow well in large containers and a greenhouse as well. Mango trees are shady in nature.. They grow very fast and can reach a height of as much as 65 ft. The life of mango trees is generally very long and some specimens are known to be over 300 years old and still fruiting.
National Song of India
Composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterji in Sanskrit, the song Vande Mataram was primarily conceived to serve as a motivation to the people in their freedom struggle. Though it was penned down in 1876, the first publication emerged in the year 1882 in ‘Anandamatha’ amidst doubts of a ban by the British Raj. Sharing an equal status with Jana-gana-mana (National Anthem of India), the song was first sung in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. Vande Mataram served as a voice against British rule during the freedom struggle. Initially, people with patriotic fervor flocked the streets of Calcutta and other metropolis, shouting the slogan ‘Vande Mataram’ or ‘Hail to the Mother (land)!’
Terrified by the impending danger, British banned the expression of song and imprisoned freedom fighters, who disobeyed the command. Vande Mataram initially served as the National Anthem of India, but later Jana-gana-mana was adopted as the anthem of independent India. This was because the Muslim sect in India felt that the song was biased, as it depicted the nation as ‘Ma Durga’, a Hindu Goddess. Though Vande Mataram aptly illustrated the pre-independence national zeal and passion, it was espoused as the National Song of India. In the following lines, we have provided the wordings of the National Song of India and its English translation.
National Song Of India
sujalaaM suphalaaM malayaja shiitalaaM
SasyashyaamalaaM maataram ||
pullakusumita drumadala shobhiniiM
suhaasiniiM sumadhura bhaashhiNiiM
sukhadaaM varadaaM maataraM ||
Koti koti kantha kalakalaninaada karaale
koti koti bhujai.rdhR^itakharakaravaale
abalaa keno maa eto bale
bahubaladhaariNiiM namaami taariNiiM
ripudalavaariNiiM maataraM ||
Tumi vidyaa tumi dharma
tumi hR^idi tumi marma
tvaM hi praaNaaH shariire
Baahute tumi maa shakti
hR^idaye tumi maa bhakti
tomaara i pratimaa gaDi
mandire mandire ||
TvaM hi durgaa dashapraharaNadhaariNii
kamalaa kamaladala vihaariNii
vaaNii vidyaadaayinii namaami tvaaM
Namaami kamalaaM amalaaM atulaaM
SujalaaM suphalaaM maataraM ||
ShyaamalaaM saralaaM susmitaaM bhuushhitaaM
DharaNiiM bharaNiiM maataraM |”
Mother, I bow to thee!
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
bright with orchard gleams,
Cool with thy winds of delight,
Dark fields waving Mother of might,
Glory of moonlight dreams,
Over thy branches and lordly streams,
Clad in thy blossoming trees,
Mother, giver of ease
Laughing low and sweet!
Mother I kiss thy feet,
Speaker sweet and low!
Mother, to thee I bow.
Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands
When the sword flesh out in the seventy million hands
And seventy million voices roar
Thy dreadful name from shore to shore?
With many strengths who art mighty and stored,
To thee I call Mother and Lord!
Though who savest, arise and save!
To her I cry who ever her foeman drove
Back from plain and Sea
And shook herself free.
Thou art wisdom, thou art law,
Thou art heart, our soul, our breath
Though art love divine, the awe
In our hearts that conquers death.
Thine the strength that nervs the arm,
Thine the beauty, thine the charm.
Every image made divine
In our temples is but thine.
Thou art Durga, Lady and Queen,
With her hands that strike and her
swords of sheen,
Thou art Lakshmi lotus-throned,
And the Muse a hundred-toned,
Pure and perfect without peer,
Mother lend thine ear,
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
Bright with thy orchard gleems,
Dark of hue O candid-fair
In thy soul, with jewelled hair
And thy glorious smile divine,
Lovilest of all earthly lands,
Showering wealth from well-stored hands!
Mother, mother mine!
Mother sweet, I bow to thee,
Mother great and free!
National Tree of India
The national tree of India, banyan is a very huge structure, long and deep roots and branches symbolize the country’s unity. One can find banyan trees in throughout the nation. The huge sized tree acts as a shield, protects from hot sun. This is the reason why the tree is planted near homes, temples, villages and roadsides. In the rural parts of the country, banyan tree is considered as the focal point of the Panchayats and the gathering place for village councils and meetings. The tree is also considered sacred by the Hindus of India. With high medicinal value, banyan is often used as a herb to treat and cure many diseases. Given below is the description of banyan, the national tree of India.
Importance In The Indian Culture
The tradition of worshipping ‘sacred’ trees is prevalent among the people following Hinduism, since ages. Rig Veda and Atharva Veda stipulate that trees should be worshipped, for their inevitable role in human life. Banyan is considered one among the sacred trees. In the Hindu mythology, Lord Shiva is sometimes depicted sitting in silence, under the banyan tree, with the saints sitting at His feet. With its seemingly unending expansion, the banyan tree symbolizes eternal life. In Hindu culture, the tree is often called ‘kalpavriksha’, a Sanskrit word, which means ‘a divine tree that fulfills wishes’. Married Hindu women worship the banyan tree to lead a long and happy married life.
Banyan tree is characterized by a tangle of branches, roots and trunks. The tree is deeply rooted, which may spread across several acres. It is huge in size, thereby giving protection from hot sun. The tree bears fruits that look like figs. The fruits, which appear red in color when matured, are not edible. The dark green leaves of the tree are large and leathery. This is the reason why, the leaves are used as animal fodder. The flowers produced by the tree often attract wasps, for pollination. An old banyan tree can reach more than 656 feet in diameter and can be as tall as 98 feet. The rubber, produced from the sticky milk of banyan tree, is used for gardening.
- The name ‘banyan’ is derived from Banias, who rested under the trees to discuss their strategies regarding business.
- The widest tree in the world – the Great Banyan – is located in Kolkata. The tree is about 250 years old.
- Historical records say that Alexander the Great camped under a banyan tree that was large enough to provide shelter to his army of 7000 men.
- In many parts of the world, the wood and bark of the banyan tree are used for making paper.
- People even make use of the roots of the tree to make ropes, in order to secure wood bundles.
- The sap produced by banyan tree is often used to produce shellac, a strong adhesive. It can also be used to make surface-finisher.
- Women in Nepal crush the root of the banyan tree with a paste to make a herbal product, which is used by them as a hair and skin conditioner.
- In India and Pakistan, the twigs of banyan tree are sold as toothpicks in order to promote dental health.
- Banyan tree is well known for its medicinal uses. Its sap is a medicine for treating external skin inflammations and bruising, dysentery, toothaches and ulcers. Its bark and seeds are used to produce a herbal tonic that can cool the body. Diabetic patients are also treated by the tonic made from banyan tree.
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
The Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly. The Constituent Assembly held its first sitting on the 9th December, 1946. It reassembled on the 14th August, 1947, as the sovereign Constituent Assembly for the Dominion of India. The proposed Constitution had been outlined by various committees of the Assembly like:
a) Union Constitution Committee
b) The Union Powers Committee
c) Committee on Fundamental Rights.
It was after a general discussion on the reports of these Committees that the Assembly appointed a Drafting Committee on the 29th August, 1947. The Drafting Committee, under the Chairmanship of Dr. Ambedkar, embodied the decision of the Assembly with alternative and additional proposals in the form of a ‘Draft Constitution of India which was published in February, 1948. The Constituent Assembly next met in November, 1948, to consider the provisions of the Draft, clause by clause. After several sessions the consideration of the clauses or second reading was completed by the 17th October, 1949. The Constituent Assembly again sat on the 14th November, 1949, for the third reading and finished it on the 26th November, 1949, on which date the Constitution received the signature of the President of the Assembly and was declared as passed. The provisions relating to citizenship, elections, provisional Parliament, temporary and transitional provisions, were given immediate effect, i.e., from November 26, 1949. The rest of the Constitution came into force on the 26th January, 1950, and this date is referred to in the Constitution as the Date of its Commencement.
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
Purpose of Having a Preamble:
The Preamble to our Constitution serves two purposes: –
A) It indicates the source from which the Constitution derives its authority;
B) It also states the objects, which the Constitution seeks to establish and promote.
The Preamble seeks to establish what Mahatma Gandhi described as The India of my Dreams, “…an India in which the poorest shall feel that it is their country in whose making they have an effective voice; …an India in which all communities shall leave I perfect harmony. There can be no room in such an India for the curse of untouchability or the curse of Intoxicating drinks and drugs. Woman will enjoy as the same rights as man.”
Indian Government have provided six basic rights to every citizen India. So, as to provide a democratic environment for the peopel of India to live in. Here, we are describing each fundamental right in detail to help you in understanding our constitution.
The Fundamental Rights embodied in the Indian constitution acts as a guarante that all Indian citizens can and will lead their lifes in peace as long as they live in Indian democracy. These civil liberties take precedence over any other law of the land. They include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before the law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom of religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights such as habeas corpus.
In addition, the Fundamental Rights for Indians are aimed at overturning the inequities of past social practices. They have also been used to in sucessfully abolishing the “untouchability”; prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth; and forbid trafficking in human beings and also the forced labor. They go beyond conventional civil liberties in protecting cultural and educational rights of minorities by ensuring that minorities may preserve their distinctive languages and establish and administer their own education institutions.
Originally, the right to property was also included in the Fundamental Rights; however, the Forty-fourth Amendment, passed in 1978, revised the status of property rights by stating that “No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.” Freedom of speech and expression, generally interpreted to include freedom of the press, can be limited “in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence”
Here we have defined the six fundamental rights as per the constitution of India:-
1. Right to Equality
2. Right to Particular Freedom
3. Cultural and Educational Rights
4. Right to Freedom of Religion
5. Right Against Exploitation and
6. Right to Constitutional Remedies
These Fundamental rights have been provided at the cost of some fundamental duties. These are considered as the duties that must be and should be performed by every citizen of India. These fundamental duties are defined as:
It shall be the duty of every citizens of India: –
To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures